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參考書籍
Research References

Depression
Hibbeln, J.R. (1998). Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet, 351: 1213.

Horrobin DF. Phospholipid metabolism and depression: the possible roles of phospholipase A2 and coenzyme A-independent transacylase. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2001 16(1):45-52

Peet, M. and Horrobin, D.F. (2002). A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Archives of General Psychiatry 59: 913-919.

Puri, B.K., Counsell, S.J., Hamilton, G., Richardson, A.J. and Horrobin, D.F. (2001). Eicosapentaenoic acid in treatment-resistant depression associated with symptom remission, structural brain changes and reduced neuronal phospholipid turnover. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 55: 560-563.

Puri, B.K., Counsell, S.J., Richardson, A.J. and Horrobin, D.F. (2002).Eicosapentaenoic acid in treatment-resistant depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 59: 91-92. Stahl et. Al. (2002) American Journal of Psychiatry

Tanskanen A, Hibbeln JR, Tuomilehto J, Uutela A, Haukkala A, Viinamaki H, Lehtonen J, Vartiainen E. Fish consumption and depressive symptoms in the general population in Finland. Psychiatr Serv. (2001) 52(4):529-31

CFS/ME
Afari, N. and Buchwald, D. (2003). Chronic fatigue syndrome: a review. American Journal of Psychiatry 160:221-236.

Caliguiri, M., Murray, C., Buchwald, D., Levine, H., Cheney, P., Peterson, D., Komaroff, A.L. and Ritz, J. (1987). Phenotypic and functional deficiency of natural killer cells in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Immunology 139:3306-3313.

Chaudhuri, A. Condon, A.J., Surtees, R.A., Lees, A.J., Adock, J.E., Harding, B., Neville, B.G. and Giovannoni, G. (2004). Encephalitis lethargica syndrome: 20 new cases and evidence of basal ganglia autoimmunity. Brain 127:21-33.

Fekety, R. (1994). Infection and chronic fatigue syndrome. In: S. Straus (editor) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker.

Fukuda, K., Straus, S.E., Hickie, I., Sharpe, M.C., Dobbins, J.G., Komaroff, A.L. and the International Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Study Group (1994). The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Comprehensive Approach to its Definition and Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 121: 953-959.

Jones, J.F., Nisenbaum, R., Solomon, L. Reyes, M. and Reeves, W.C. (2004). Chronic fatigue syndrome and other fatiguing illnesses in adolescents: a population-based study. Journal of Adolescent Health 35: 34-40.

Klimas, N.G., Salvato, F.R., Morgan, R. and Fletcher, M.A. (1990). Immunologic abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 28:1403-1410.

ADHD
Aman, M.G., Mitchell, E.A. and Turbott, S.H. (1987). The effects of essential fatty acid supplementation by Efamol in hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 15: 75-90.

Arnold, L.E., Kleykamp, D., Votolato, N.A., Taylor, W.A., Kontras, S.B. and Tobin, K. (1989). Gamma-linolenic acid for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: placebo-controlled comparison to D-amphetamine. Biological Psychiatry 25: 222-228.

Bekaroglu, M., Aslan, Y., Gedik, Y., Deger, O., Mocan, H., Erduran, E. and Karahan, C. (1996). Relationships between serum free fatty acids and zinc, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 37: 225-227.

Chen, J.R., Hsu, S.F., Hsu, C.D., Hwang, L.H. and Yang, S.C. (2004). Dietary patterns and blood fatty acid composition in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in Taiwan. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 15: 467-472.

Harding, K.L., Judah, R.D. and Gant, C.E. (2003). Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus food-supplement treated children with AD/HD. Alternative Medicine Review 8: 319-330.

Hirayama, S., Hamazaki, T. and Terasawa, K. (2004). Effect of docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ? a placebo-controlled double-blind study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58: 467-473.

Portwood, M., Lowerson, S.A. and Puri, B.K. (2005). High-eicosapentaenoic acid-containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in drug-na?ve children with developmental coordination disorder and childhood-occurring dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (in press).

Richardson, A.J. (2003). Clinical trials of fatty acid supplementation in dyslexia and dyspraxia, in Phospholipid Spectrum Disorder in Psychiatry and Neurology, 2nd edn. (Peet, M., Glen, I. and Horrobin, D.F., eds.), Marius Press, Carnforth, Lancashire, pp. 491-500.

Richardson, A.J. and Montgomery, P. (2005). The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation with fatty acids in children with developmental coordination disorder. Pediatrics 115: 1360-1366.

Richardson, A.J. and Puri, B.K. (2000). The potential role of fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 63: 79-87.

Richardson, A.J. and Puri, B.K. (2002). A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 26: 233-239.

Richardson, A.J., Cox, I.J., Sargentoni, J. and Puri, B.K. (1997). Abnormal cerebral phospholipid metabolism in dyslexia indicated by phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR in Biomedicine 10: 309-314.

Richardson, A.J., Cyhlarova, E. and Puri, B.K. (2003). Clinical and biochemical fatty acid abnormalities in dyslexia, dyspraxia and schizotypy: an overview, in Phospholipid Spectrum Disorder in Psychiatry and Neurology, 2nd edn. (Peet, M., Glen, I. and Horrobin, D.F., eds.), Marius Press, Carnforth, Lancashire, pp. 477-490.

Ross, B.M., McKenzie, I., Glen, I. and Bennett, C.P. (2003). Increased levels of ethane, a non-invasive marker of n-3 fatty acid oxidation, in breath of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nutritional Neuroscience 6: 277-281.

Stevens, L.J., Zhang, W., Peck, L., Kuczek, T., Grevstad, N., Mahon, A., Zentall, S.S., Arnold, L.E. and Burgess, J.R. (2003). EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipid 38: 1007-1021.

Stevens, L.J., Zentall, S.S., Abate, M.L., Kuczek, T. and Burgess, J.R. (1996). Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems. Physiology and Behavior 59: 915-920.

Stevens, L.J., Zentall, S.S., Deck, J.L., Abate, M.L., Watkins, B.A., Lipp, S.R. and Burgess, J.R. (1995). Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62: 761-768.

Dyslexia
Portwood, M., Lowerson, S.A. and Puri, B.K. (2005). High-eicosapentaenoic acid-containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in drug-nave children with developmental coordination disorder and childhood-occurring dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptomatology: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (in press).

Richardson, A.J. (2003). Clinical trials of fatty acid supplementation in dyslexia and dyspraxia, in Phospholipid Spectrum Disorder in Psychiatry and Neurology, 2nd edn. (Peet, M., Glen, I. and Horrobin, D.F., eds.), Marius Press, Carnforth, Lancashire, pp. 491-500.

Richardson, A.J. and Puri, B.K. (2002). A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific learning difficulties. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 26: 233-239.

Richardson, A.J., Cox, I.J., Sargentoni, J. and Puri, B.K. (1997). Abnormal cerebral phospholipid metabolism in dyslexia indicated by phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR in Biomedicine 10: 309-314.

Richardson, A.J., Cyhlarova, E. and Puri, B.K. (2003). Clinical and biochemical fatty acid abnormalities in dyslexia, dyspraxia and schizotypy: an overview, in Phospholipid Spectrum Disorder in Psychiatry and Neurology, 2nd edn. (Peet, M., Glen, I. and Horrobin, D.F., eds.), Marius Press, Carnforth, Lancashire, pp. 477-490.

Dyspraxia
Richardson, A.J. (2003). Clinical trials of fatty acid supplementation in dyslexia and dyspraxia, in Phospholipid Spectrum Disorder in Psychiatry and Neurology, 2nd edn. (Peet, M., Glen, I. and Horrobin, D.F., eds.), Marius Press, Carnforth, Lancashire, pp. 491-500.

Richardson, A.J., Cyhlarova, E. and Puri, B.K. (2003). Clinical and biochemical fatty acid abnormalities in dyslexia, dyspraxia and schizotypy: an overview, in Phospholipid Spectrum Disorder in Psychiatry and Neurology, 2nd edn. (Peet, M., Glen, I. and Horrobin, D.F., eds.), Marius Press, Carnforth, Lancashire, pp. 477-490.

Schizophrenia
Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, van Rensburg SJ. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 159(9):1596-8.

Peet M. Eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia and depression: rationale and preliminary double-blind clinical trial results.Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2003 69(6):477-85.

Puri B.K., Richardson A.J., Horrobin D.F., Easton T., Saeed N., Oatridge A., Hajnal J.V., Bydder G.M. Eicosapentaenoic acid treatment in schizophrenia associated with symptom remission, normalisation of blood fatty acids, reduced neuronal membrane phospholipid turnover and structural brain changes. Int J Clin Pract. 2000 54(1):57-63.

Richardson A.J, Easton T., Puri B.K. Red cell and plasma fatty acid changes accompanying symptom remission in a patient with schizophrenia treated with eicosapentaenoic acid. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2000 10(3):189-93.

Richardson A.J., Easton T., Gruzelier J.H., Puri B.K. Laterality changes accompanying symptom remission in schizophrenia following treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid. Int J Psychophysiol. 1999 34(3):333-9.
Richardson, A.J. The role of omega 3 fatty acids in behaviour, cognition and mood. Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition. 2003 47(2) 92-98.

Richardson, A. J., et al. Red cell and plasma fatty acid changes accompanying symptom remission in a patient with schizophrenia treated with eicosapentaenoic acid. European Neurophyschopharmacology, 2000, 10:189-93.

Yao J.K., Magan S., Sonel A.F., Gurklis J.A., Sanders R., Reddy R.D. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid on platelet serotonin responsivity in patients with schizophrenia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004 71(3):171-6.

Dementia
Puri BK et al. (2005) Ethyl-EPA in Huntington disease: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Neurology 65: 286-292.

General
Neuringer, M., Anderson, G.J. and Connor, W.E. (1988). The essentiality of n-3 fatty acids for the development and function of the retina and brain. Annual Review of Nutrition 8: 517-541.

Puri, B.K. (2004). The clinical advantages of cold-pressed non-raffinated evening primrose oil over refined preparations. Medical Hypotheses 62: 116-118.